The “classical” approach to the conception of large contemporary data centers could be exemplified by Google: it usually consist of a “shoe box” (large facility with no particular architectural expression, windowless facades), surmounted by big cooling devices. That’s mainly it for the architectural side.
The location of the data center is important and is usually situated in remote locations (usually undisclosed to end users) with access to natural and infrastructural resources: fresh air, cool water, backbone access and if possible cheap energy. The location should be secure from different point of views (no flooding, cyclones, earthquakes, attacks, power blackout, etc.). Certifications usually detail the level of security/functionality of your facility (Tier certifications by the Uptime Institute are widely used).